COBRA insurance: Frequently Asked Questions Answered

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COBRA: An Introduction

What is COBRA insurance?

COBRA insurance, an acronym for the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, offers employees a continuation of their health plan if they lose their job or undergo other qualifying life changes.

History and origin of COBRA in health insurance:

Enacted in 1985, COBRA was an outcome of the omnibus budget reconciliation process. It was a response to concerns about employees losing their health insurance after termination.

The relationship between COBRA and standard health insurance:

COBRA acts as a bridge between jobs, ensuring workers and their dependents maintain their health plan coverage. Unlike standard health insurance obtained individually or via an employer, COBRA allows one to continue their existing workplace health plan for a limited period through COBRA coverage.

Understanding COBRA Insurance

An explanation of how COBRA health insurance works:

When a qualifying event, like divorce, legal separation, or termination (except for gross misconduct), occurs, COBRA insurance coverage ensures the continuation of your existing health plan. An employer needs to notify the plan administrator within 30 days of the event, after which the beneficiary has 60 days to decide whether to enroll and continue their coverage.

The types of coverage offered by COBRA insurance:

COBRA covers medical, dental, and vision plans. If you were enrolled in a dental plan or had dental insurance with your previous employer, you could continue it under COBRA. Additionally, if there's a change in employee benefits, like the introduction of a new dental plan, COBRA beneficiaries are also eligible.

Differences and similarities between traditional insurance and COBRA:

The main similarity is the health plan itself; you continue with the same benefits. However, with COBRA, the enrollee typically pays the full premium, often making it more expensive than other marketplace insurance options.

Eligibility and Application for COBRA Insurance

Determining if you're eligible for COBRA health insurance:

COBRA is available to employees of companies with 20 or more employees. To be eligible, one must face a qualifying event. Dependents and spouses also qualify if they lose coverage due to the employee's qualifying event.

Steps for applying for COBRA insurance:

Once the plan administrator is notified by the employer or the eligible beneficiary, they provide an election notice. You have 60 days from the notice or the date you'd lose coverage, whichever is later, to enroll.

What to anticipate during the application process:

You might encounter administrative delays. Ensure you've all documents ready, monitor your enrollment timeline, and confirm your coverage to avoid lapses.

Process of COBRA Coverage

Understanding the application timeline:

After receiving the election notice, you have 60 days to enroll. Once you elect COBRA, coverage is retroactive to the date of your qualifying event.

Typical obstacles encountered during application:

The most common is the high insurance premium, as you pay the full amount. Misunderstandings about the enrollment timeline can also lead to unintended lapses in coverage.

Ensuring continuance of coverage after approval:

You must pay the initial premium within 45 days of your election. Subsequent premiums have a grace period of 30 days.

Examining the Benefits and Drawbacks of COBRA Health Insurance

An overview of the advantages of using COBRA insurance:

COBRA provides an uninterrupted health plan, crucial for those with pre-existing conditions. It also ensures continued access to preferred providers and ongoing treatments.

Considerations of the potential downsides of COBRA health insurance:

The most significant is the cost, as COBRA premiums can be high. It's also temporary, making it essential to find another insurance option before its expiration.

Comparative analysis between COBRA and other insurances:

While COBRA offers continuity, marketplace plans under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) might be more affordable, especially with potential subsidies. Medicare or Medicaid could also be viable alternatives for some.

You might find more cost-effective alternatives for you and your family via the Health Insurance Marketplace, Medicare, Medicaid, or another group health plan (for instance, from a spouse's employer) during a "special enrollment period." Some of these choices might be more budget-friendly than COBRA. For more details on these alternatives, visit

HSA and COBRA: Using HSA for COBRA Premiums

Is it possible to use my HSA to cover COBRA premiums?

In most cases, insurance premiums don't fall under the list of qualified HSA expenditures as per the IRS. Yet, some exceptions exist, COBRA being one of them. IRS Publication 969 stipulates:

"For insurance premiums to be considered as qualified medical expenses, they should be for:

  1. Long-term care insurance.
  2. Continuation health care coverage like COBRA.
  3. Health care coverage when availing unemployment compensation under federal or state regulations.
  4. Medicare or similar health care plans if you're 65 or older, excluding premiums for Medicare supplementary policies such as Medigap."

Thus, it's feasible to settle COBRA continuation coverage premiums using your HSA funds. Moreover, if you're unemployed and on unemployment benefits, your HSA can be utilized to acquire other health insurance.

It's worth noting that COBRA premiums cannot be paid via a Flexible Spending Account (FSA). But in some circumstances, COBRA payments might be possible with a Health Reimbursement Arrangement (HRA). For clarity on this, it's best to reach out to your benefits administrator.

Decision Making: Is COBRA Right for You?

Considering personal health, employment status, finances, the trade-offs of COBRA, and its long-term implications, it’s crucial to assess all factors. For those with ongoing treatments, COBRA can be invaluable, but always compare it with other available options.


  • Is canceling COBRA a qualifying event?
    Cancelling COBRA in itself is not considered a qualifying event. A qualifying event in the context of COBRA refers to specific scenarios, such as job loss, reduction in working hours, divorce, or legal separation from a covered employee, which allows an individual to become eligible for COBRA coverage. If you voluntarily cancel COBRA, it doesn’t give you the right for special enrollment in another health plan.

  • How much is the COBRA monthly premium?
    The monthly premium for COBRA is typically the entire cost of the health plan coverage that the individual had while employed. This includes both the portion the employee paid and the portion the employer contributed. Additionally, there can be an administrative fee, which is up to 2% of the premium.

  • How do I calculate COBRA costs?
    To calculate COBRA costs, you'll want to sum the total of your insurance premium (both the employee's and the employer's contributions) and add the administrative fee, which can be up to 2% of that combined total.

  • How do I get started with COBRA?
    After a qualifying event, your employer is obligated to notify the plan administrator within 30 days. The administrator will then provide you with an election notice, informing you of your right to opt for COBRA coverage. You typically have 60 days from the date of the notice or the date your coverage would end (whichever is later) to decide if you want to enroll in COBRA.

  • How long does it take for COBRA to kick in?
    Once you elect for COBRA coverage and make the premium payment, your coverage is retroactive to the date of the qualifying event, ensuring no gap in coverage.

  • Can I cancel COBRA and get a refund?
    No, if you cancel COBRA coverage, you are not entitled to a refund for premiums already paid. Payments made to COBRA are not refundable.

  • What are disadvantages of COBRA insurance?
    While COBRA provides an invaluable safety net, it has disadvantages:

Cost: COBRA is often more expensive because individuals pay the full premium, including the part the employer used to contribute.

Duration: It's a temporary solution, generally lasting 18-36 months.

Administration: Managing COBRA can be complex, especially ensuring timely premium payments to avoid cancellation.

  • How does COBRA affect the employer?
    For employers, COBRA means:

Administrative Responsibility: Employers must provide timely notifications about COBRA rights and manage the administrative aspects of continuation coverage.

No Financial Break: While the former employee pays the full premium, the group rates typically stay consistent, meaning no direct financial savings for the employer when an employee opts for COBRA.

Continuity: Allows a smoother transition for employees leaving, which can help in maintaining a positive alumni network and employer brand.

  • Is COBRA 60 days retroactive?
    Yes, COBRA coverage is retroactive to the date of the qualifying event, provided you elect COBRA within the 60-day window and pay the premiums due.

  • Does COBRA mean fired?
    No, COBRA itself doesn't mean someone was fired. COBRA is a provision allowing continuation of health insurance coverage after employment ends, regardless of whether the end was due to firing, resignation, or another qualifying event like reduced working hours.

  • How does COBRA work if I quit my job?
    If you voluntarily resign from your job, you're still typically eligible for COBRA. As with other qualifying events, you would be provided the option to continue your health insurance by paying the full premium plus a potential 2% administrative fee.

  • How do I stop paying COBRA?
    If you decide to stop your COBRA coverage, you can simply stop making premium payments. It's recommended to notify the plan administrator of your decision for clarity. Once payment stops, the coverage will be terminated, and it cannot be reinstated.

Remember, while COBRA offers a valuable safety net, it's essential to understand its provisions and costs to make the best decision for your health coverage needs.

Consider consulting an insurance expert or exploring or other websites for detailed guidance. Always know your rights under federal law and the ACA.

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